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Cocoa Cultivation & Processing

  • Cocoa is the dried and partially fermented fatty seed of the cacao tree from which chocolate is made.
  • "Cocoa" can often also refer to the drink commonly known as hot chocolate.
  • Cocoa powder, the dry powder made by grinding cocoa seeds and removing the cocoa butter from the dark, bitter cocoa solids; or it may refer to the combination of both cocoa powder and cocoa butter together.
  • Cocoa ( Theobroma cacao L. ) is a native of Amazon region of South America. The bulk of it is produced in the tropical areas of the African continent.
  • There are over 20 species in the genus but the cocoa tree Theobroma cacao is the only one cultivated widely.
  • Cocoa being a tropical crop, India offers considerable scope for the development. Cocoa is mainly grown in Kerala, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu
  • The cocoa tree – Theobroma Cacao – grows in the warm and humid equatorial belt within 10°N and 10°S of the equator.
  • Young cocoa trees only thrive in tropical temperatures within the protective shadow of tall-growing plants such as banana plants or palm trees.
  • Both the burning sun and the strong winds are merciless enemies of this fragile tree.
  • The cocoa tree flowers in two cycles of 6 months the whole year round.
  • Average rainfall of 1250-3000 mm. per annum and preferably between 1500-2000mm. with a dry season of not more than 3 months with less than 100mm. rain per month is ideal, but the quantity is less important than distribution. Rainfall can be supplemented with irrigation during dry months.
  • Temperature varying between 30-320C mean maximum and 18-210C mean minimum but around 250C is considered to be a favourable. It can’t be grown commercially in areas where the minimum temperature fall below 100C and annual average temperature is less than 210C
  • Production of cocoa, the key ingredient in chocolate, has expanded and increased sharply during the twentieth century. Cocoa is produced by more than fifty developing countries across Asia, Africa and Latin America – all of which are in tropical or semi-tropical areas.
  • It is estimated that 70% of world cocoa production comes from smallholdings.It is estimated that there are currently 2.5 million cocoa smallholders.
  • One of the largest producer of Criollo beans is Venezuela (Chuao and Porcelana). Trinitario is a hybrid between Criollo and Forastero varieties. It is considered of much higher quality than the latter, but has higher yields and is more resistant to disease than the former
  • Scientists in a Penn State research program have developed a process to clone genetically identical cocoa trees from cocoa flowers, which could enhance cocoa plant quality on a large scale. And that, in turn, could increase cocoa farming profitability and stabilize the supply of cocoa beans on the global market.
  • Cocoa contain a high level of flavonoids, specifically epicatechin, which may have beneficial cardiovascular effects on health.
  • The ingestion of flavonol-rich cocoa is associated with acute elevation of circulating nitric oxide, enhanced flow-mediated vasodilation, and augmented microcirculation.
  • Foods rich in cocoa appear to reduce blood pressure.
  • Cocoa seeds are processed into cocoa powder for use mainly to make chocolate and cocoa butter. Cocoa pulp can be eaten fresh or made into cocoa juice.
  • It may be used in cakes, creams, drinks, toppings.
  • Besides its use as a food, scientists discovered cocoa is beneficial for health. Cocoa has twice the anti-cancer antioxidants of red wine, and up to three times those found in green tea.
  • The economic growth of many of the Least Developed Countries is closely linked with cocoa production, as well as other primary commodities. Many producer countries depend on cocoa exports for a large part of their foreign exchange earnings and government revenue.
  • Cocoa prices are highly volatile. Global demand for cocoa is expected to be strong going forward. Cocoa demand has been growing at an average rate of 3.7%
  • World consumption of cocoa beans, as measured by grindings. Grindings in the cocoa importing countries were estimated at 2.12 million tonnes. The Netherlands and the United States were the principal processing countries.
General Information
  • Importance of Cocoa
  • The Story of Cocoa
  • Cocoa - Dry Powder Nutrition Facts
  • Cocoa


  • Cacao Production in Cameroon: Technology, Profitability and the Environment
  • Effects of market deregulation on cocoa (Theobroma cacao) production in Southwest Nigeria
  • An Overview of Cocoa Production in Côte d'Ivoire and Ghana
  • Cocoa Production Strategies and the Conservation of Globally Significant Rainforest Remnants in Ghana
  • The History of Cocoa Production in Trinidad and Tobago
  • The cocoa production
  • Vulnerability of agriculture to climate change- impact of climate change on cocoa production
  • Quality Management Practices in Cocoa Production in South - Western Nigeria
  • Sustainable cocoa production systems
  • World Cocoa Beans Production

Growth & Cultivation

  • About- The crop- Cocoa - Cultivation
  • Cocoa Plantation
  • Cocoa cultivation
  • Cocoa Plantation vs. Small Farm
  • Growing cocoa crop along with coconuts
  • The Origins Of Cocoa Cultivation
  • Cocoa Planting Pattern Towards Mechanization Activity
  • Cocoa Tree Plantation


  • Biotechnology for Cocoa Pod Borer Resistance in Cocoa
  • Cocoa in Malaysia
  • Cocoa Processing Plant
  • Cocoa Products & Processing
  • The production process - from cocoa beans to semi finished products


  • Analysis of nutritional constraints to cocoa production in PNG
  • CFC-project revives cocoa production in Brazil
  • Global Approaches to Cocoa Germplasm Utilization and Conservation
  • Mapping and Molecular Analysis of Cocoa
  • Cocoa Rehabilitation Project
  • Sustainable cocoa production in West Africa: development of a farmer participatory integrated crop management programme
  • Cocoa Project in Vietnam

Analysis & Function

  • Health & Nutrition Aspects of Mars Cocoa and Chocolate
  • Catechin in Cocoa and Chocolate: Occurence and Analysis of an Atypical Flavan-3-ol Enantiomer
  • Effects of cocoa powder and dark chocolate on LDL oxidative susceptibility and prostaglandin concentrations in humans
  • Cocoa Flavonols and Procyanidins Promote Transforming Growth Factor- 1 Homeostasis in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells
  • Ingested cocoa can prevent high-fat diet–induced obesity by regulating the expression of genes for fatty acid metabolism
  • Modulation of TNF-a Secretion in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells by Cocoa Flavanols and Procyanidins


  • Flavanol-rich cocoa for brain health
  • Cocoa Uses
  • Cocoa
  • Use For Cocoa Flavonols
  • Chocolate & Cocoa: Health and Nutrition
  • Cocoa - Nutrition Facts
  • Potential Uses of Cocoa Bean Infested by Conopomorpha cramerella for Polyphenol Extraction
  • Cocoa reduces risk of cancer and cardiovascular disease
  • Use Of Cocoa


  • Causes of low productivity of cocoa in Ghana: farmers’ perspectives and insights from research and the socio-political establishment
  • Penn State Uses Cloning Technology to Improve Cocoa Plants
  • Developing Best Practice Guidelines for Sustainable Models of Cocoa Production to Maximize Their Impacts on Biodiversity Protection
  • Study of oil migration in cocoa butter using a novel technique based on image analysis
  • Molecular discrimination of Phytophthora isolates on cocoa and their relationship with coconut, black pepper and bell pepper isolates based on rDNA repeat and AFLP fingerprints
  • Consultant from Spain
  • Consultant from USA
  • Consultant from North America
  • Consultant from UK
  • Consultant from Minnesota

Processing Companies & Plants

  • Company from India
  • Company from Ghana
  • Company from China
  • Company from Pennsylvania
  • Company from Malaysia


  • Cocoa Butter
  • Cocoa Powder
  • Cocoa Products
  • Pure Cocoa Products


  • Contaminants issues in Cocoa and EU regulatory Environment
  • Fairtrade Standards for Cocoa
  • The Cocoa and Chocolate Products Regulations 2003 Guidance Notes
  • Cocoa Regulation
  • Cocoa and Chocolate Products Regulations

Pest Control Management

  • Controlling Cocoa Pests in South East Asia with the Black Cocoa Ant
  • Control of cocoa swollen shoot disease by eradicating infected trees in Ghana: A survey of treated and replanted areas
  • Socio-economic impact of a cocoa integrated crop and pest management diffusion knowledge through a farmer field school approach in southern Cameroon
  • Economic Benefits of Fungicide Use Among Cocoa Farmers in Osun and Ondo States of Nigeria
  • Pesticide Use Practices and Safety Issues: The Case of Cocoa Farmers in Ondo State, Nigeria
  • Optimising the use of motorised knapsack mistblowers for control of insect pests of cocoa
  • Management of black pod disease of cocoa with reduced number of fungicide application and crop sanitation
  • Sustainable Pest Management in Smallholder Tree Crops

Turnkey providers

  • Turnkey providers from UK
  • Turnkey providers from Netherlands
  • Turnkey providers from Germany
  • Turnkey providers from Indonesia
  • Turnkey providers from Philippines
  • Turnkey providers from Spain


  • Cocoa
  • Coeboxypeptidase of Cocoa
  • Enzymatic Treatment of Cocoa
  • Method For Processing Cocoa Mass
  • Process for Producing Cocoa Extract
  • Cocoa Product and Process of Preparation
  • Use of Cocoa Procyanidins Combined with Acelylsalicyclic Acid as an Anti-Platelet Therapy
  • Whipped Cocoa Bath


  • Global Supply & Demand
  • Global Forecasts - 2011 / 2012
  • Monthly Reports - march 2010
  • Monthly Report  - February 2010
  • Monthly Report  - February 2009
  • Monthly Report - October 2008
  • Cocoa Market Briefing
  • The Cocoa Market 1994 - 2007: Comparison of Fairtrade & New York Exchange Prices
  • Cocoa demand on the up
  • Economic Viability of Ethical Cocoa Trading in Ecuador
  • Global Cocoa Market & a Typical Cocoa Farm
  • The cocoa market – a background study
  • The World Cocoa Market Outlook
  • Cocoa - Market
  • Drivers and barriers to sustainable purchasing practices in the cocoa sector
  • The Sustainable Cocoa Trade
  • Price watch .  ICCO - Daily Prices


  • International Cocoa Organization Annual Report
  • Cocoa Butter and Foreign Fats in Chocolates
  • Child Labor in the Cocoa Sector of West Africa
  • Cocoa In-Depth Report
  • A Sustainable Future for Cocoa
  • Ghana Cocoa Farmers Survey : Report to Ghana Cocoa Board
  • Global cocoa deficit increases
  • Cocoa Market Report

Suppliers & Buyers

  • Exporters of Cocoa Powder
  • Manufacturer / Suppliers of Cocoa
  • Suppliers of Cocoa
  • Selling Leads of Cocoa Powder
  • Cocoa Products Manufacturers & Suppliers
  • Cocoa Powder Suppliers
  • Cocoa Buyers List 1
  • Cocoa Buyers List 2
  • Global Link to Brokers, manufacturers, growers, associations